Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. To use one of Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas.
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The main thrust of Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A great many ideas fall into this category. Worse still, the banalization of nihilism creates an environment where ideas can be imposed forcibly with little resistance, raw power alone determining intellectual and moral hierarchies. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.