a series of present condition of india essay floral shapes above and a stylized Gothic letter "T" below. Was still rag paper. Closeup of old laid paper with the gridiron pattern and watermark. If these lines are distinct and parallel, and/or there is a watermark, then the paper is termed laid paper. This allows the collector and dealer to identify modern reprints and fakes of antique trading cards, posters, photographs, programs and other paper memorabilia.
Collectors who encounter two otherwise identical stamps with different watermarks consider each stamp to be a separate identifiable issue. In a dark room and under black light optical brighteners will usually fluoresce a very bright light blue or bright white. Examination of the arrangement of the images in Briquet (which are ordered based on the shape and elements of the watermarks) shows that similar watermarks generally have similar dates and places of use.
770: The earliest instance of text printing upon paper, in China. 105: Paper making invented in China. 1470: First paper poster, in the form of a booksellers advertisement.
Many antique paperstock collectibles are identified as fakes simply by shining a black light on them Starting in the late 1940s, manufacturers of many products began adding optical brighteners and other new chemicals to their products. A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background caused by thickness or density variations in the paper. The background image is a laid paper. Existing catalogs (such as Briquet) which use tracings do not show all of the details needed for exact identification. Optical brighteners are invisible dyes that fluoresce brightly under ultraviolet light. The watermark in question may not appear in any published catalog and so cannot be compared to watermarks of known papermakers. 1835 J Whatman watermark on an Audubon print Pablo Picasso sometimes used paper with his personal watermark * * * * Using black light to identify modern paper A black light is effective in identifying many, though not all, modern paper stocks. They were used to make products appear brighter in normal daylight, which contains some ultraviolet light. 207, the combination of watermark shape, positioning on the sheet and sewing dot pattern can be used to identify the manufacturer of the paper, as well as the geographic area where it was produced and the approximate date of manufacture. Paper manufacturers joined the act as well, adding optical brighteners to many, though not all of their white papers stocks. The watermark shape changed gradually as the mould was used, and sometimes the watermark wire broke and was repaired, changing the shape. Anjum Malik 16, Archaeology/Anthropology, elizabeth Martinson 17, History, kira Nicolai 17, History of Art/Statistical Science.
Wa termarks identify paper as the product of a particular maker or mill.
Archive of Papers and Watermarks.
The Paper Identification Database is created for collecting.